Direct CO2 removal & sequestering
1. Direct air capture. Directly capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by freezing it out of the air or use chemical capture techniques. The downside is energy requirement. (BCN p 174)
2. Capture and sequester. Burn new trees, shrubs, and grasses and capture the resulting concentrated stream of carbon dioxide for sequestration. (BCN p 176)
3. Store carbon dioxide. Store captured carbon dioxide by pumping it underground at a site with the appropriate geology. Tests are still underway to prove the it as a permanent solution. Mineralization is a process that can sequester carbon within certain kinds of rock to form calcium carbonate. It is a slow process as shown by several small test cases. (BCN p 177)
4. Building with carbon. Building with laminated timber would be another way to sequester carbon
(BCN p 182). 75. Alternative Cement using fly ash from burning coal can reduce carbon dioxide release. (DD p 162)
5. Recycling Paper releases less carbon dioxide that using fresh fiber from trees. (DD p 166)78 Bioplastic can reduce emissions and sequester carbon. (DD p 168)
1. Atmosphere & space-based. One option to reverse climate change is to add specific chemicals, such as sulfuric acid or hydrogen sulfide, into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight back into space. Placing mirrors in space is another option. Neither, approach will address ocean acidification. (BCN p 187)
Alter surface albedo
Ocean acidification and other problems
1. Landfill methane can be collected and burned for electricity (much lower warming potential). (DD p100)
1. Refrigeration releases of CFC refrigerants can be reduced and alternatives for CFCs found.
(DD p 164)
People’s Project 3. Advanced technologies (currently in R&D)
Halt net release of CO2
1. New energy sources. Energy sources for carbon capture and sequestration may include new nuclear capacity that is still in R&D. (BCN p 181) Small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs) that have many safety and fuel use advantages over today’s nuclear power plants are under intense development in the US, Canada and other countries.
2. Artificial Leaf to produce synthetic fuel from sunshine, water, carbon dioxide and bacteria.
(DD p 182)
3. Solid-State Wave Energy convert kinetic energy of waves to electricity. (DD p 187)
4. Ocean Farming with sea weeds and shell fish removes nitrogen and mercury and gives biofuels.
(DD p 206)
5. Smart Grids communicate between suppliers and consumers to improve efficiencies and deal.
(DD p 209)
Winter energy sources
1. Autonomous Vehicles gain fuel efficiency by following each other closely. (DD p 184)
2. Living Buildings Challenge is as standard for sustainable buildings. (DD p 188)
3. Smart Highways will recharge electric vehicles as they pass and have photovoltaic surfaces.
(DD p 196)
4. Hyperloop involves passing pods of people or cargo through a tunnel as high speeds. (DD p 198)
Industrial carbon capture & sequestering
1. Improve adsorption efficiency of MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) to reduce scale and cost.
2. Develop viable commercial chemistries for converting CO2 to hydrocarbons or building materials.
Adapt to unavoidable climate change impacts
Stabilize the Earth’s energy system to halt warming and adjust the Earth’s energy system to return to prior conditions
1. Repopulating the Mammoth Steppe by converting it back to grasslands with wild herbivores.
(DD p 172)
1. Pasture Cropping involves planting crops in a living perennial pasture without breaking the soil. (DD p 175)
2. Intensive Silvo-pasture mixes grasses, trees, leguminous shrubs and grazing animals. (DD p 181)
3. Microbial Farming uses combinations of microorganisms to fertilize the soil. (DD p 200)
4. Perennial Crops, grains and cereals, and oilseed plants, avoid tilling and sequester carbon.
(DD p 203)
Direct CO2 removal & sequestering
1. Solid carbon. Store solid carbon by converting a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide to solid carbon or carbonates suitable for safe disposal. Ways to do so are currently in R&D. (BCN p 179)
2. Enhanced Weathering of Minerals, olivine, spread on land and shallow water to uptake CO2.
(DD p 176)
3. Marine Permaculture by creating suspended kelp forests. (DD p 178)
4. Direct Air Capture takes carbon dioxide from the air and concentrates it for sequestering.
(DD p 192)
5. Industrial Hemp is environmentally superior to cotton and can substitute with processing.
(DD p 202)
6. Building with Wood sequesters carbon and avoids CO2 release from cement manufacture.
(DD p 210)
7. React CO2 with hydrogen to produce hydrocarbons useful for chemicals/plastics. This is very difficult chemistry and is still in R&D phase.
Solar blocking atmospheric based
Solar blocking space-based
Alter surface albedo
Address Ocean Acidification and Other problems
1. A Cow Walks onto a Beach and ate seaweed that improved milk production and reduced methane release. Research is focusing in on red algae to improve digestion and reduce methane. (DD p 2040)
Technical Evaluation Criteria for Each GSP Option
(Both Available & Ones in R&D)
Technical evaluation criteria
Technical feasibility (commercially available, commercial demonstration, R&D).
Effectiveness in halting the net release of CO2.
Effectiveness in stabilizing and adjusting the Earth’s energy balance.
Effectiveness in correcting ocean acidification and other problems.
Effectiveness in coping with unavoidable climate change impacts.
Scale and timing of implementation.
Capital & yearly costs per unit and at scale and timing of implementation.
Net energy requirements and availability.
Human and natural resource requirements and availability
Economic and Social/political evaluation criteria are included in the Problem Diagrams.
Note: These criteria were selected to reach practical, effective results. The integrated systems from the GSP must work when they are implemented just as a bridge, a chemical plant, or a rocket system must work when built.